Best pedagogical approaches for the schools in the context of Nepal

Narayan Prasad Sapkota

Educator I Trainer I Teacher I Writer

Selecting the “best” pedagogical approach for schools involves considering a range of factors, including the educational goals of the institution, the needs of the students, available resources, and cultural context. Here are some widely recognized pedagogical approaches that schools around the world often find effective:

1. Student-Centered Learning

  • Constructivism: Students construct their own understanding and knowledge through experiences.
  • Inquiry-Based Learning: Students ask questions, investigate, and solve problems, fostering curiosity and critical thinking.
  • Problem-Based Learning (PBL): Students learn through solving real-world problems, promoting collaboration and application of knowledge.

2. Collaborative Learning

  • Cooperative Learning: Students work together in small groups to achieve shared learning goals, fostering social skills and teamwork.
  • Peer Teaching/Peer Learning: Students teach each other, which reinforces learning and builds confidence.

3. Experiential and Hands-On Learning

  • Project-Based Learning (PBL): Students work on long-term projects, engaging with real-world issues and applying knowledge.
  • Experiential Learning: Learning by doing, such as through experiments, field trips, and simulations.
  • Service Learning: Combines learning objectives with community service, enhancing civic engagement and empathy.

4. Inquiry-Based Approaches

  • Socratic Method: Encourages critical thinking through questioning and discussion.
  • Discovery Learning: Students explore and discover principles for themselves, fostering a deeper understanding.

5. Personalized Learning

  • Differentiated Instruction: Tailoring teaching methods to individual student needs, abilities, and learning styles.
  • Individual Learning Plans (ILPs): Customized plans for each student based on their strengths, weaknesses, and interests.

6. Technology-Enhanced Learning

  • Blended Learning: Combining traditional face-to-face instruction with online learning resources and technology.
  • Flipped Classroom: Students learn new content at home through online videos or readings, then apply it in class through discussions and activities.

7. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

  • Multicultural Education: Recognizing and valuing diverse cultures and backgrounds in the curriculum.
  • Indigenous Pedagogy: Incorporating traditional knowledge and practices of local communities into education.

8. Play-Based Learning

  • Early Childhood Education Approaches: Play-based learning for younger children, emphasizing exploration, creativity, and social skills development.

Implementation Considerations:

  • Professional Development: Teachers need training and support to effectively implement new pedagogical approaches.
  • Assessment Strategies: Align assessment methods with the chosen pedagogy, focusing on understanding and application rather than memorization.
  • Resource Allocation: Ensure schools have the necessary resources, materials, and infrastructure to support the chosen approach.
  • Community Engagement: Involve parents, local communities, and stakeholders in the education process.


The “best” pedagogical approach depends on the specific context and goals of the school. Often, a combination of these approaches tailored to the needs of the students and the resources available is most effective. Regular evaluation and feedback mechanisms are essential to ensure the chosen approach is meeting the desired educational outcomes.


Here are some reputable references and resources that discuss various effective pedagogical approaches for schools:


Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., & Bellisimo, Y. (2006). Project-based learning and student achievement: What does the research tell us? Educational Researcher, 35(1), 25-32.

Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (2019). Supporting the development of growth mindset in mathematics learning: A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(8), 1255–1277.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Culturally responsive teaching: A review of the literature. The Journal of Negro Education, 64(4), 390-400.

Lazonder, A. W., & Harmsen, R. (2016). The impact of inquiry-based learning on student engagement: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 719–756

Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Technology integration in the classroom: A review of research. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 103-119.